USDA loans are just like every other loan in the sense there are 30 year, 20 year, 15 year, and 10 year loans. There are fixed rate USDA loans and there are adjustable rate USDA loans. USDA loans are made by and held by the same banks and financial institutions that make and service every other type of loan. What makes the USDA loan different from other loans is that the underwriting guidelines and guarantee to financial institutions comes from the federal government's Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Many people mistakenly think that USDA loans are for agricultural properties when in fact agricultural properties are ineligible for the USDA loan. Originally designed for properties that exist in between high density residential and traditional agricultural multi-acre properties, USDA loans have become a very popular loan as congress has blocked the USDA from updating their map or rural properties for almost a decade. Many former rural areas have been developed with high density residential properties that while not the original target of he USDA program are 100% eligible for the 100% loan-to-value loan.